24.04 Social Learning Theory

Bandura et al. (1961)

The aim of this experiment was to see whether the children would imitate the aggressive behavior of the model adult and if they were more likely to imitate models of the same sex. 36 children from both sexes with ages between 3 to 6 were used as participants. One group was exposed to adults showing aggressive behavior towards a “Bobo” doll by hitting and kicking it. Another group was exposed to adults who assembled toys and the last group didn’t observe any model. In the first and second group only half of the children were exposed to same-sex models. After being in this situation for 10 minutes the children were placed in aroom with toys including the Bobo doll. It was found that children who had observed the aggressive models were more aggressive which included verbally and physically.

Bandura suggests the theory of social learning was demonstrated however there are some limitations. Firstly, there seems to be a low ecological validity since it was carried out in a laboratory.  Maybe the child showed this behavior because they thought it would please the researcher. There was also only a short encounter between the child and the model and the child shows frustrations right after. This doesn’t show how it would be in a long term effect and doesn’t predict what happens when exposed to aggressive parents or watch television daily, for example. Also, the only aggression that was shown was aggression towards the doll but this doesn’t indicate aggression in general but only to this specific situation. The aggression the child was exposed to wasn’t the exact same during all the trials. Some were more verbally aggressive which could’ve had an effect on it. Of course there is an issue with ethics as children as used for this. It might be frightening for a child to watch an adult in such a manner. There was so guarantee that there would be a permanent change to the behavior of the child.

Since the children showed signs of observational learning Bandura suggests that the theory of social learning was demonstrated. However, even though the theory is supported by the study I think the issues with ethics and the method are a big problem. It’s also a problem that maybe we can’t generalize this

  • Given these concerns, reach a conclusion about the importance of this study in understanding social learning theory.

According to Bandura, the theory of social learning was demonstrated in the study, since the children showed signs of observational learning. With regard to the second aim, Bandura observed that girls were more likely to imitate verbal aggression, whereas boys were more likely to

In spite of the fact that this study supports social learning theory, it is important to critically evaluate the study with regard to both its method and its ethics.

05.04 Chocolate and the Command Terms

Define
Give the precise meaning of a word, phrase, concept or physical quantity.
If define was the command term I would give a definition of what chocolate actually is in terms of its physical properties. 

Describe
Give a detailed account.or physical quantity.
If describe was the command term I would give a detailed explanation of how the chocolate looks, smells or tastes. 

Outline
Give a brief account or summary.or physical quantity.
If outline was the command term I would summarize how many pieces of chocolate there are and give the main points about the chocolate, for example what color they are. 

State
Give a specific name, value or other brief answer without explanation or calculation.or physical quantity.
If state was the command term I would say what kind of chocolate there is and what flavors without further explanation. 

Analyse
Break down in order to bring out the essential elements or structure.or physical quantity.
If analyse was the command term I would break down the elements and look at the structure of the chocolate together with what it might be made out of or what might be in it. 

Distinguish
Make clear the differences between two or more concepts or items.or physical quantity.
If distinguish was the command term I would say what makes the different types of chocolate different. 

Explain
Give a detailed account including reasons or causes.or physical quantity.
If explain was the command term I would give reason for why the chocolate looks the way it does.

Compare
Give an account of the similarities between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout.or physical quantity.
If compare was the command term I would compare two different types of chocolate and their similarities. I could look at how many there are of each or what ingredients are used. 

Compare and Contrast
Give an account of similarities and differences between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout.
If compare and contrast was the command term I would look at how two different types of chocolates are different and the same. Again, I could look at he quantity and physical features. 

Contrast
Give an account of the differences between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout.
If contrast was the command term I would look at two different types of chocolate and their differences.

Discuss
Offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses. Opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence.
If discuss was the command term I would give my opinion on the chocolate and which one I like best and why while supporting my argument. An example could be that I like white chocolate best because it’s the healthiest and I would have to give evidence that this is true. 

Evaluate
Make an appraisal by weighing up the strengths and limitations.
If evaluate was the command term I would say which one I like best while listing the negative and positive sides of the different chocolates to support my argument.

Examine
Consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue.
If examine was the command term I would think of an argument statement that has two different sides so people can argue about it.

To what extent
Consider the merits or otherwise of an argument or concept. Opinions and conclusions should be presented clearly and supported with appropriate evidence and sound argument.
If to what extent was the command term I would give my opinion upon the chocolate or my opinion upon a statement. I would then support my argument with examples and evidence out of which I would eventually make a conclusion.

Does social media make people smarter or more stupid?

Social media has become very popular over time and it’s importance to people has grown massively. I use social media almost everyday and spend my time on this when I could be spending time on more useful things. However, I do think I learn a whole lot from social media as well. I think the question if social media makes people smarter or more stupid is extremely debatable. Maybe it depends on the person or on what social media but overall I think social media has its negative and positive sides.

I think that because of social media people are less creative and it can change people. Because of the internet we are shown a diversity of different information sources. Research has shown that humans often copy other people and on social media one is shown a lot of different opinions. This could lead to us not expressing our own thoughts or doing something because someone else does it. However, I think being open to other people’s ideas can make you more openminded. It can make you think of things differently.

I don’t think people should be banned to go on social media but I do think eventually when a certain amount of hours is reached it gets unhealthy. I think it all depends on how people are using social media, what kind of social media and how often they use this.

Time Travel

In Physics we are talking about time travel and whether we think this is possible to shape our opinion we watched a video about Stephan Hawking. Personally, I don’t believe we are able to travel in time. I think it’s impossible to travel back to the past but there may be a way too travel ahead of time. This would only be possible if we found an object that moved faster than light. However, this still hasn’t been proven and it’s difficult because it’s something we can’t see. Then I ask myself, would I want to go forward in time? But I don’t think this is human. Of course there are many pros to being able to travel in time but there are many cons as well. For example you would be able to skip to an age you want to go to and see how you’re life is in the future. If everyone were to travel in time the world would be a mess and you never know who’s from the past and who’s not. If everyone would be able to time travel the whole concept of time will be gone. In conclusion, maybe it was meant for us not to be able to travel in time and maybe it’s best if humans aren’t capable of doing so. But with this technology developing faster than ever before, who knows what will be possible in the future.

Economics Unit

During this unit we focused mainly on stocks, the stock market and stock exchanges. We talked about shares and markets and looked at different companies and how they are doing economically. We had to choose companies we would want to invest in, predict what their stocks would do and explain why we would choose that company. For example, Apple would be smart to invest in since they have a new apple watch coming out that is available on the 24th of April. We also talked about and had to present about a stock market millionaire and figure out how they did it. This helped us to see how to buy stocks smartly and if there are any tips that professionals could give us. The last thing we did was make a presentation about the stock exchange where we had to explain how it works and give definitions of multiple words that had to do with the stock exchange. For me it’s hard to work on these things because I am in no way interested in economics. However, I still try to do my best and learn new things.

Discovering new substances

I think that discovering new substances adds on to the development of the world. With the new technology and technics that are found in present day many new substances have already been found, some have a bigger influence on the world than others. Now, the question is if it’s worthwhile to spend a lot of money to discover new substances. I think it depends on the case. A lot of money has gone to waste, for example, when they try to discover a new substance but it doesn’t work out. However, some may say that the discoveries that do work out are worth it. Still, this is only in some cases. I did my project on MDMA, an illegal drug. Money was put into this project and I think that in that case it wasn’t worthwhile because there are no long term benefits that are formed by this substance. In this case they wanted to make something else and this was accidentally discovered. What I’m trying to say is that one never really knows when if it will be worth it until a while after. But on the other hand without new substances being discovered this world doesn’t develop as much as it could have.

Reducing Planes

This unit we have been working on noise pollution and the use of airplanes. The debatable question for this unit was should the use of planes be reduced? After doing research, making the report/flyer, and listening to other people’s presentation I decided that I was on two sides. What most airports or governments see as a solution is to simply reduce the amount of planes flying or to experiment with the different ideas and technology that is coming. I have figured out that there are many positive effects that planes have on culture. For example, planes can bring cultures together and connect people. Also relating to the muslim religion, they have to go to Mecca once in their life and if you live on the other side of the world this is hard without a plane. Although the planes do help these cultures the noise pollution that it generates can be disturbing for the people living around it. When relating to Economical factor, there are benefits like tourists that come in. Tourist usually bring in a lot of money that can boost the economy. However, there comes a big price with planes and airports. There are certain solution for these like, reducing the amount of airplanes flying, having a certain limit, haver curfews for the planes when to fly and when not to fly, not have as many airports in one place as there could be.

These are factors that effected by airplanes but the major problem we had to look at was the noise pollution. I believe that the noise is worth all the positive sides like the examples I explained above. I don’t think planes should totally be banned because I think that by doing this there will be even more problems caused. I do think that the amount of planes flying could be reduced but to a certain point. By reducing the amount of planes that are flying there would be fuller and less planes flying. This would also help the environment as there would be less pollution made as there would originally be. However, like I said before I think that all the positive sides are much bigger and more powerful than the problem of having noise pollution.

Math Unit

Math isn’t my favorite subject in school but I did enjoy something about this unit. I enjoyed learning new things during the unit because I have never done anything with surds, negative indices or fractional indices before. I liked how we would go through the answers with the whole class and ask questions about things we wouldn’t understand.The investigation we did to prepare us for the test I failed. I think this is because I didn’t expect it or study for anything. When in class I understand what I have to do but once it’s written on a test where there’s no examples I get confused. For the summative I did study but not as much as I could’ve but once I was in the test I finished quite early. I studied all the rules but eventually they were written on the test so I thought that was kind of easy. I know that I was late a couple of time and that I missed a few math classes because of the transportation and other reasons but I think I still got a good grade for what I missed. When I was stuck I would look at the math lesson on myimaths and follow the steps. For the next unit I need to make sure I get everything and know how to do it without any examples so that I am ready for a surprise step anytime. Also, a more general goal is to not be late as often. Some skills I used in this unit I can use in different units as well for example, I learned working with square roots. I think there are many other units where I will have to work with these and now i know the basic rules. Then, I also learned about square numbers and I think this is always useful as well. I think this wasn’t the best unit when you look at my grades but when looking at my results from the investigation and the results from the summative test you can see that I made a difference and go better hinting that I learned something.

Reflection on Investigation

In technology we had to choose a freeware, that it related to education, and make a tutorial about how this freeware can be used. Right now I’m on the inquiring and analyzing part of the design cycle. I already completed the guiding questions, identification of the problem, analysis of the freeware,design brief, analyzation targeted of audience and researching. While doing my research I found out more about spottily and that it is everything that I expected. I read about other people’s opinions and I noticed that they are the same as mine. Just like me, they find spottily easy to use but some people don’t know about all the different options you have on spotify. When doing my primary research this was backed up because of the answers I got. The feedback I got back really helped because in this way I had a chance to improve anything I didn’t do as well as I could have. This also helps me understand my mistakes better and gives me a second chance.