Blog Post: ERQ Outlines

  • Describe symptoms and prevalence of one disorder from two of the following groups: anxiety disorders, affective disorders eating disorders.



– What are the symptoms of affective disorders and eating disorders?

– Describe causation for these disorders

Present research for

Present studies

-Studies for

Aim, method, findings, conclusion

-Present research against

Studies against

Aim, method, findings, conclusion

Analysis of their conclusions

Second study for

  • Aim, method, findings, conclusion

Second study against

  • Aim, method, findings, conclusion

Compare conclusions


  • Discuss cultural and ethical considerations in diagnosis.



Do cultural and ethical considerations affect diagnosis?

  • Brief mention of previous areas of research
  •  Identify causation dilemma

Present studies on both sides

  • studies for
  • studies against

After weighing evidence it appears that cultural and ethical considerations affect diagnosis

  • Research for
  • First study for
  • Aim
  • Method
  • Findings

Analysis of conclusion

Research against

First study against

  • Aim
  • Method
  • Findings

Analysis conclusion

Second study against

  • Aim
  • Method
  • Findings

Analysis conclusion

Second study for

  • Aim
  • Method
  • Findings

Analysis conclusion

Compare conclusions

Come to final conclusion


Mental Illness: An Historical Perspective

History of mental illness differs per country but the main representation of mental illness history is that people thought that it was because of an evil spirit. The history of mental illness in the U.S shows the ways in which trends in psychiatry and cultural understanding of mental illness influence national policy and attitudes towards mental health.

Many cultures have seen mental illness as a form of religious punishment. In ancient Egyptian, Indian, Greek, and Roman writings, mental illness was seen as a religious or personal problem.

In order to get the illness out of the body, a very common treatment was exorcism. Magic was a very believable theory from a historic point of view as abnormal psychology is directly linked with something magical, as well as treatment wise, chanting something magical or reciting a certain prayer.

Attempts to treat mental illness go back as early as 5000 BCE as evidenced by the discovery of trephined skulls. Early man widely believed that mental illness was the result of supernatural phenomena such as spiritual or demonic possession, sorcery, the evil eye, or an angry deity and so responded with equally mystical, and sometimes brutal, treatments.


Role of Cultural Dimensions of Behaviour

  • Examine the role of two cultural dimensions of behavior.

The two dimensions I will be focusing on in this blog post are uncertainty versus avoidance. This dimension indicates to what extent a culture programmes its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unstructured situations. An example of unstructured situations are novel, unknown and surprising. A culture which wants to avoid uncertainty tries to minimize the chance of a situation like this by creating strict laws and rules, safety and security measures. The reason for cultures doing this is because they simply do not want change. As well as letting people believe there is only one truth and that is the truth that they have.  Geert Hofstede was the one that suggested the six dimensions. His aim was to identify traits through the classification of behaviour according to culture. The procedure included participants which were 60.000 IBM employees from over 50 different countries. He then asked them to fill in surveys. The findings of the study conclude that there are 4 bipolar Cultural Dimensions. These dimensions are Individualism-Collectivism; found that “Western” cultures were more individual Masculinity-Femininity, Power Distance and Uncertainty Avoidance. To evaluate the survey may consist of leading questions / predetermined results, low ecological validity; lab / survey, unable to acquire rich / descriptive qualitative data, questions require participants to have a level of literacy skills, questions originally in English – meaning may be lost in translation. However useful qualitative data was collected. I personally think culture is very important in shaping behaviour as people will be less likely to conform to other people’s behaviour when they are in a certain culture.




Social Learning Theory and Bandura (1961)

  • Write a brief description of the study.

Bandura (1961) aimed to see two different things, one was to see whether children would imitate agression modelled by an adult and the second aim was to see whether children were more likely to imitate same-sex models. Children aged 3 to 6 were divided into 3 groups. One group was exposed to adult models whoc showed aggression by bashing an inflatable bobo doll, the second observed a non-aggressive adult who assembled toys for 10 minutes. And the third group wasn’t shown any models. Some children in the first and second group watched opposite and some same sex models. The results showed that the children imitated the aggression seen by the adult and that the children were more likely to imitate the same-sex adult.

  • Identify the methodological limitations and ethical considerations raised by the study.

Despite the fact that this study supports social learning theory, we must look at the methodological limitation and ethical consideration in order to know whether we can trust it. The experiment has been criticized for low ecological validity, because not only was it carried out in a laboratory but there were other factors which make the situation less natural. The children only see the adult be aggressive for a limited amount of time and the children are intentionally frustated after they begin to play with the toy. Besides the agression shown by the model was not completely standardized, meaning that the children might have observed slight differences in the aggression being displayed. Furthermore the children might have acted aggressively because they though it would please the researcher. Furthermore ethical limitations were present as well. Observing adult strangers act in such a violent manner might be frightening to children. It can also be debated whether it is appropriate to teach children violent bahaviour. Besides, it was not sure whether after the children were exposed to such violence, it would not become a permanent feature of the child’s behaviour or be generalized to other situations.

Given these concerns, reach a conclusion about the importance of this study in understanding social learning theory.

Considering these concerns I think that other studies on this theory are more accurate and reliable, for example the Charlton (2002) study. In that study there is more evidence of accurate and doing research for a longer amount of time to reach to conclusions.

How is technology being used to investigate cognitive processes

Hello 🙂

I have recently read the article “The search of the earliest signs of Alzheimer’s”. And was asked to write a blog post about the cognitive processes discussed in the article.

The article discusses how different technology can show possible signs leading to Alzheimer. For the past five years, volunteers have participated in an ongoing study that is changing what scientists know about Alzheimer disease. The volunteers undergo a brain checkup. They solve puzzles and memorize words. MRI scans show the structure of their brains in great detail and allow scientists to watch portions of their brain light up as they form memories. The PET scan measures any accumulation of beta-amyloid, which is a destructive protein that is a hallmark of Alzheimer. The goal of the study is to find out how our brains change as we age. The scientists compare their findings with brain scans of Alzheimer patients. They have noticed that some volunteers have the same level of amyloid as an someone with Alzheimer. Yet these people have no signs of the disease. Until recently they thought that the more amyloid accumulation in the brain, the greater the chance of developing the disease. Now however they believe that amyloid unleashes a chain of events that may or may not cause Alzheimer’s. They have found structural and functional changes in the brains of healthy people that are associated with beta-amyloid. Some of these changes may be prelude to Alzheimer’s. When people committed pictures to memory whilst they watched their brain activity with functional MRI normal people with beta-amyloid deposition showed more activity than people without beta-amyloid. One possible interpretation is that it enables memory formation despite the presence of beta-amyloid. Jagust’s group is also thinking about other questions such as; is the cognitive decline associated with beta-amyloid deposition linked to rate of deposition? Or is it more closely associated with changes in brain function that occur after beta-amyloid has done it’s damage. In another study, Jagust’s team found that the more beta- amyloid plaque in a person’s brain, the more a person is likely to have a smaller hippocampus. They also found that someone with this damage is more likely to have impaired memory. This research will help scientists determine how this constellation of events changes in brain function.

Here is the link to the article:

Application and analysis

Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the biological level of analysis.


  • Explain what you are going to discuss and explain in the essay, refer back to the question and how you plan to answer the question.
  • Explain what the BLOA is and what it is used for
  • Briefly explain the common research methods used
  • State which one(s) you will discuss in the essay

Body Paragraph 1

  • State the first research method and why it is good to use for the BLOA.
  • Explain in what ways this method can be used
  • Explain how to execute this research method.

Body Paragraph 2

  • State a study in which this research method is used include aim, procedure, results, conclusion and evaluation
  • State the advantages and disadvantages of the study
  • Explain the limitation of the method

Body Paragraph 3

  • Introduce the second research method and explain how it works
  • State the limitations and advantages of it
  • Explain what the method can be used for

Body paragraph 4

  • State a study in which the method is used. Discuss aim, procedure, results, conclusion and evaluation.
  • State advantages and disadvantages
  • Ethical considerations, methodological considerations.


  • Refer back to the question and answer it
  • Briefly explain the studies and the methods explained
  • How the research methods are used in the BLOA.