Reflection study strategies

In the past I have used multiple study strategies. I’ve had times that I was extremely prepared, and thus used creative methods to study. For example I made quizes for myself to take, I made flashcards, wrote revision booklets, did many past-exam questions, etc etc. These things actually all worked really well for me. I think that what works best for me is to not study the whole day, but rather 2-4 hours a day. Doing this in intervals of 30 minutes with 10 minute breaks has also been really useful. I aim to stay hydrated at all times and make sure I have a plan of exactly WHAT I am going to study, WHEN and HOW. Reflecting back on this, these have all really worked effectively for me.

But of course it’s also happened multiple times that I was not prepared and had to cram the night before, or a few days before, the exam. This usually causes an extreme amount of stress in me, and sleep deprivation is definitely an issue here. Although I wouldn’t advise this for big exams like the upcoming end-of-year exam, it has worked reasonably well in the past. I don’t advise it because of the accompanying stress and sleep-deprivation. But reflecting on it, my marks weren’t considerably lower than those of tests that I studied better for. But of course, with the amount of theory we need to know for psych, I think that with this method it’s next to impossible to get a good grade.

So I suggest to actually just do what I do when I’m organized. Make it fun. Seriously. I actually really like studying sometimes. Just make it fun, be creative. I love using my whiteboard, and acting like I’m teaching a class. I know this sounds weird, but it really helps. When you teach someone else, you really have to get what you’re talking about and have to express it in a way that is understandable for everyone. I also suggest making flashcards for subjects that have a lot of theory. It takes a REALLY long time though, which is a negative. But then again, you learn when making the flashcards and if you do it in a pretty way and do your best to make it look good, you’ll enjoy it and you can use them for a long long time. Quizzing yourself is also really great. Making the test itself is already fun and it’s just really useful. I also really suggest going over past-exam questions. This will give you an idea of the terminology you can expect and you can really learn from this.

I think there definately are psychological aspects to studying. The main one being repeated study periods. Long term and short term memory play an important role when studying, because we need to make sure that the information we’re studying doesn’t only go to our STM. We want it to be in our LTM so that we can remember information till the exam comes up (and after). The main tip for achieving this is to study regularly and repeat. Don’t cram a lot in short time periods. Stretch it out and repeat the theory as much as possible.

So yeah, there’s a lot to keep in mind. But my main tips are repetition and making it fun. If you’re really negative about it, it will never go well. So just make it fun and don’t go on for too long. Make sure you give yourself some well-earned rest and enjoy yourself.

Melissa <3


Social Learning Theory – Bandura (1961)

Bandura (1961) was a laboratory experiment aiming to investigate whether children imitate aggression modelled by an adult and to examine if children were more likely to imitate same sex models. The study made use of 72 children aged between 3-5 years old. They were split up into three groups; either they watched a model of how a non-violent adult played with toys, a model of how an adult played with toys and then suddenly started beating up the so-called Bodo-doll, or they didn’t watch any model (control group). After watching (or not watching) their assigned model, the participants were put in a similar situation to see how they would behave. It was found that the children in the violent-model behaved similarly towards the doll. It was also found that boys showed more signs of physical violence/aggression (like the male model) and girls showed more signs of verbal aggression (like the female model). Therefore, aggression was imitated, with same-sex role models eliciting the highest rate of aggression, and with boys exhibiting more physical aggression and girls exhibiting more verbal aggression. The study concluded that children can learn behaviour through observation and imitation of an adult.

Some strengths of the study include that the sex of the children, sex of the adult model, and aggression levels of the adult were strictly controlled. Due to the fact that the average age of the participants is an age where cognitive development is critical, the age was very appropriate to the task. In addition to this, the mixed genders ensured that questions around gender differences were addressed. Some limitations, however, include low ecological validity (laboratory experiment), unstandardized levels of aggression, and possible demand characteristics. Some ethical considerations to keep in mind are that the study was done on young children that are extremely susceptible to traumas or the like. Moreover, at the time it was not known whether or not exposing children to such violence would cause permanent mental damage.

Although there are a substantial amount of weaknesses and ethical considerations to be considered, the strengths and especially the results outweigh these in the long run. Social learning theory has been investigated and supported to a great extent in this important study.






Reflection social and self-management skills online

Whilst doing this group project on Pamoja about hormones, I realized that it’s extremely different from group work in real life. For example, I’ve been having a great deal of difficulty connecting with my other group members. In real life it’s easy to plan who does what, however when it’s in an online environment, you have to all be online at the same time to communicate in the most effective manner. In addition, I find that I often find myself doing most of the work, and that others aren’t very productive.

Time management I find a lot easier, however, since I can work on it whenever I want, and I don’t necessarily need to be online at the same time as the others in my group. However, there is always the issue that when presenting this isn’t the case, and the fact that you don’t have allocated lesson hours in which it is mandatory to work in makes it hard to ensure that everyone does their fair share of work.

My Essential Skills


  • I am at a practitioner level of thinking skills. I have the ability to think critically about situations on demand, without needing an example from a teacher or fellow student. Although this is not with every topic or assignment, I can think critically about many familiar and unfamiliar topics.


  • I am at a practitioner level of communication skills. I am often very unsure of myself when needing to communicate with others. However, I do possess the knowledge needed to communicate effectively with both fellow students and teachers. I also often put this knowledge to use when needing an explanation or other.


  • I am also at a leaner level for social, seeing as this is probably the reason that I do not dare to communicate as much. I find it hard communicating with people that I do not know very well, as I think they will think badly of me. I often look at others for an example on how to act with fellow students, and therefore see myself as a learner of this skill.


  • I am not sure what level I am for this skill seeing as I haven’t really practiced it a lot over the past few weeks. Therefore, I would say I am at a learner level, seeing as I do often look to others for guidance on things I am not sure of, researching being one of them.

Self – management

  • Again, I would put myself at a learner level for this skill. I often look at others and how they manage their time, work etc in order to improve my own skills. Although I do plan ahead, I often plan wrong and end up changing it anyway, which is why I consider myself a learner of this particular skill.

05.04 Chocolate and Command Terms


Give the precise meaning of a word, phrase, concept or physical quantity.

If define was the command term I would give a definition of what chocolate actually is in terms of its physical properties.


Give a detailed account.

If Describe was the command term I would give a detailed account of the most important details of chocolate, both physical and other properties, in a narrative.


Give a brief account or summary.

If outline was the command term I would outline the main characteristics of chocolate, outlining what it is, what it’s physical properties are, and other important facts.


Give a specific name, value or other brief answer without explanation or calculation.

If state was the command term I would give a brief answer of what type of chocolate it is, for example. Without explaining more than that.


Break down in order to bring out the essential elements or structure.

If analyse was the command term I w/could consider facts and evidence that I know about chocolate and refer them to a (psychological) problem, for example obesity.


Use an idea, equation, principle, theory or law in relation to a given problem or issue.

If apply was the command term I would apply my knowledge on the effect of chocolate on the release of dopamine in order to solve an issue or a problem.


Make clear the differences between two or more concepts or items.

If distinguish was the command term I would explain the differences between the different chocolates at the feast.


Give a detailed account including reasons or causes.

If explain was the command term I would give reasons or causes for the fact that most of the chocolate brought was milk chocolate, for example.


Give an account of the similarities between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout.

If compare was the command term I would explain the similarities between white and dark chocolate, considering both physical characteristics, taste, etc

Compare and Contrast

Give an account of similarities and differences between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout.

If Compare and Contrast was the command term I would also explain the similarities, but also the differences between the different chocolates available at the feast.


Give an account of the differences between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout.

If contrast was the command term I would compare the behaviours of people who had eaten no chocolate to people who had eaten multiple pieces.


Offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses. Opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence.

If discuss was the command term I would discuss factors related to the overeating of chocolate, and the development of obesity or diabetes (or other illnesses derived from excessive chocolate – eating.) A balanced answer would be given, considering available evidence.


Make an appraisal by weighing up the strengths and limitations.

If evaluate was the command term I would assess the value of chocolate to health, by looking into evidence and by explaining the strengths and limitations related to it.


Consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue.

If examine was the command term I would carefully scrutinize the theory that chocolate makes you happy to see how it explains something and why. I would also, if applicable, find similarities and differences.  

To what extent

Consider the merits or otherwise of an argument or concept. Opinions and conclusions should be presented clearly and supported with appropriate evidence and sound argument.

If To what extent was the command term I would consider the value of the concept that white chocolate is not real chocolate. I would express my opinion and accompanying conclusions clearly and support them with evidence and sound argument.



Experimental and Non-Experimental methods

There are many differences between Experimental and Non-Experimental methods. They both have their advantages and their disadvantages and knowing which one use and when is very important. In this mind map I tried to summarize all of the above mentioned aspects of the two different methods.

Link to my mind map:

Is social media making us smarter or more stupid?

Social media is at it’s peak at the moment, with millions of Facebook, Twitter and Instagram users from all over the world. The sharing of knowledge is being increased but so is the sharing of offensive and mean messages, making social media both a blessing and a curse.

Social media is a blessing as it enables us to share ideas with people in all corners of the world. Thousands of people can collaborate on assignments and share knowledge which, as Alex “Sandy” Pentland describes clearly, brings up the collective intelligence of the group. But also the individuals within the group gain knowledge and a sense of perspective from collaborating with so many different people. Social media is a great example where thousands of people can share their knowledge and understanding with others and thereby increase the whole “group’s” intelligence.

On the other hand, social media can also be a curse. To begin with, it is an enormous distraction. As shown in the video by Epipheo, when distracted by an email whilst studying, the information your brain was processing before your phone went *ping* is lost. The email has taken over your brain’s concentration. In addition to this, the information that you were concentrating on won’t go into your long-term memory. Social media takes over.

Overall, Social media is and will always be both a blessing and a curse. However, by turning our social media off when studying or relaxing, we can put our personal or individual intelligence to better use.





Is time travel possible?

I don’t believe that time travel is possible through worm holes. Maybe it’s because the whole concept is too hard to wrap my head around, but I don’t think it’s very likely. I don’t understand the theory behind it. However, a theory that did seem a little easier to understand was the one of slowing time down. It said that when you are close to something which weighs a lot, or has a large mass, time slows down. therefore, time is slower near big pyramids or planets. This I can understand, and I can also understand that going into orbit somewhere for 5 years and then coming back 10 years later on earth can be possible. In theory. I don’t think that we have the technology nor the knowledge to time travel this way. In theory, I think a time travel is possible, yes. However practically, no. Not for many, many years. I believe that it will take many many years before we can even time travel a few seconds into the future, let alone years. Moreover, time traveling into the past seems even harder. I think that it is possible, just not in the near future.

– Melissa